Scientific Facts About Beta Alanine

1-) Beta-Alanine (BA) and BA-containing pre-workouts used for 4 weeks between 4-6 g per day increase the muscle carnosine level.

2-) Multi-content nutritional supplements ( pre-workouts ) containing sufficient amounts of beta-alanine can provide the desired muscle gain and continuity when used regularly for 4 weeks. 3-) Beta-Alanine does not have any side effects. 4-) Beta-Alanine reduces neuromuscular (nerve – muscle) fatigue and contributes to tactical thinking.


Beta-Alanine is an amino acid derivative. As it can be synthesized by the body in the liver, individuals can support their Beta-Alanine needs by consuming poultry and red meat products . The reason why Beta-Alanine has been preferred more than all ergogenic nutritional supplements lately is that it increases the level of carnosine in skeletal muscles (1).

It is known that the muscle carnosine value is increased in individuals who do resistance training and high-intensity training (2 ).

4-6 g of 
Beta-Alanine daily for 4 weeksIt has been discovered that ethanol increases the muscle carnosine level by 64%, and if this intake is continued for up to 10 weeks, the rate increases up to 80% (1,3).

In addition, in another study, it was proven that daily consumption of 4.8 g of Beta-Alanine for 6 weeks increased between 15% and 55% compared to the basal carnosine levels of individuals (4).  

The rate of increase in the level of carnosine; It differs according to the basal value of the person. It has been found that muscle carnosine levels rise much faster in individuals who are generally vegetarian. In a normal individual, the muscle carnosine value is 10-40 mmol/kg dry weight, and this value decreases with advancing age (5).

For this reason, many studies have also shown that Beta-Alanine in women and the elderly.It has been shown that its consumption will have positive results and can help preserve muscle tissue. (6,7).

Working Mechanism of Carnosine.

The intracellular buffering function of carnosine, discovered by Severin SE and his friends from Moscow University in 1953, enabled the use of Beta-Alanine , which is highly preferred by athletes today, as a nutritional supplement. Carnosine; It is a dipeptide composed of histidine and alanine and is usually stored in muscles. It is more common in fast-twitch muscles. Carnosine; It is catalyzed by the enzyme carnosinase, which is found at different rates in blood serum and organs. However, the carnosinase enzyme is not found in muscles.

Therefore, to increase the muscle carnosine level, Beta-AlanineTaking carnosine itself by mouth instead of taking it will be unnecessary as it will be metabolized in the digestive system before it reaches the muscles (8). Anaerobic glycolysis (energy production system in an oxygen-free environment) system is used as the primary energy source in trainings that require high-intensity power. The lactic acid and hydrogen ions (H+) that emerge as a result of glycolysis decrease the muscle pH value (an acidic environment is formed) (9). Low pH negatively affects physical activity as it increases muscle fatigue and decreases muscle strength (10) Beta-Alanine ; therefore, carnosine comes into play at this point . Oral Beta-AlanineAs mentioned before, increasing the muscle carnosine level buffers the muscle pH level and prevents the muscle from being acidic, thus allowing the athlete to maintain his physical strength for a longer period of time without getting tired. (1,3) Another important contribution of Carnosine is that it acts as antioxidant compounds that increase the quality and duration of life. It reduces oxidative stress as a result of removing free radicals from the body. Also transition metals; In other words, it has the feature of binding copper and iron, which are heavy metals, and thus protects the cell from free radicals that will occur after the Fenton reaction. (11th)

Usage Doses and Effects

As a result of many studies, it has been shown that the best way of use is to take the chronic dose in 2 equal parts in the form of 4-6 g per day for at least 2 weeks. For example, it is recommended that an athlete use 2 g before training and 2 g after training as the correct dose. After 2 weeks of use, the muscle carnosine level increases by 20-30%; If the use is extended to 4 weeks, this rate can increase up to 40% to 60%. (12,13 ).

The reason why it is taken in pieces is so that it does not cause a tingling sensation. Some athletes may prefer a single dose because they like the tingling sensation and provide mental motivation. 
Carnosine level returns to normal between 6 and 15 weeks as of cessation of use.  It is thought that the use of Beta-Alanine can reduce the level of taurine. The main reason for this is that Beta-Alanine and taurine use the same transporter (Tau-T) in muscle (14).

However, as a result of the research, it was seen that Beta-Alanine , which was used for 4 weeks (10-40 mg / body weight) , did not significantly reduce the taurine level, but also increased the carnosine level significantly (1). As a result of the researches, no negative effects on health have been observed with the use of recommended doses so far.

Effects on Performance and Use with Other Nutritional Supplements
Beta-AlanineIt is known that the support prevents muscle fatigue and enables the use of muscle power for a longer time thanks to the 'buffering mechanism'. After the meta-analysis, physical activities lasting between 60 and 240 seconds were determined as the time that beta alanine had the most effect.

Physical activities lasting more than 240 seconds were less effective and were not beneficial in activities lasting less than 60 seconds and performed only once (15). Hoffman et al. found that pre-workout supplements containing creatine monohydrate and Beta-Alanine increased the values ​​of one rep (1RM) squat and bench press with maximum weight.

The most important factor is that creatine monohydrate increases muscle strength and 
Beta-Alanine prolongs training and muscle fatigue time. (16) It has been proven that multi-component pre-workouts taken between 4 and 8 weeks increase muscle mass and strength maintenance (17). The importance of its use for sports branches is given in the table below (Table 1).



Very important




Very important



Sprint >400

Very important

Sprint <400

Less Important

Body building

Very important





Endurance Sports <90 Min


Bicycle (Continuity)

Very important

American Football - Rugby


Table 1

It would not be an exaggeration to say that beta-alanine is among the indispensable products for athletes with the data we have.


Sports Dietitian Coşku HAPPY



1-) Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, Boobis L, Coakley J, Kim HJ, et al. The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids. 2006;30(3):279–89. doi:10.1007/s00726-006-0299-9.

2-) Baguet A, Everaert I, Hespel P, Petrovic M, Achten E, Derave W. A new method for non-invasive estimation of human muscle fiber type composition. PLoS One. 2011;6(7), e21956. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021956.

3-) Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Harris BD, Sale C, Boobis LH, et al. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Amino Acids. 2007;32(2):225–33.

4-) Baguet A, Reyngoudt H, Pottier A, Everaert I, Callens S, Achten E, et al. Carnosine loading and washout in human skeletal muscles. J Appl Physiol. 2009;106(3):837–42. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.91357.2008.

5-) Derave W, Everaert I, Beeckman S, Baguet A. Muscle carnosine metabolism and beta-alanine supplementation in relation to exercise and training. Sports Med. 2010;40(3):247–63. doi:10.2165/11530310-000000000-00000.

6-) Stout JR, Cramer JT, Zoeller RF, Torok D, Costa P, Hoffman JR, et al. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. Amino Acids. 2007;32(3):381–6. doi:10.1007/s00726-006-0474-z.

7-) Stegen S, Bex T, Vervaet C, Vanhee L, Achten E, Derave W. beta-Alanine dose for maintaining moderately elevated muscle carnosine levels. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46(7):1426–32. doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000248.

8-) Gardner ML, Illingworth KM, Kelleher J, Wood D. Intestinal absorption of the intact peptide carnosine in man, and comparison with intestinal permeability to lactulose. J Physiol. 1991;439(1):411–22. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1991.sp018673.

9-) Hultman E., Sahlin K. Acid-base balance during exercise. Exerc. Sports Sci. Rev. 1980;8:41– 128.

10-) Zoeller RF, Stout JR, O'Kroy JA, Torok DJ, Mielke M. Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on aerobic power, ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and time to exhaustion. Amino Acids. 2007;33:505–510. doi: 10.1007/s00726-006-0399-6.

11-) Kohen R, Yamamoto Y, Cundy KC, Ames BN. Antioxidant activity of carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine present in muscle and brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci US A. 1988;85(9):3175–9.

12-) Stellingwerff T, Anwander H, Egger A, Buehler T, Kreis R, Decombaz J, et al. Effect of two beta-alanine dosing protocols on muscle carnosine synthesis and washout. Amino Acids. 2012;42(6):2461–72. doi:10.1007/s00726-011-1054-4.

13-) Suzuki Y, Nakao T, Maemura H, Sato M, Kamahara K, Morimatsu F, et al. Carnosine and anserine ingestion enhances contribution of nonbicarbonate buffering. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(2):334–8. doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000185108.63028.04.

14-) Murakami T, Furuse M. The impact of taurine- and beta-alanine supplementeddiets on behavioral and neurochemical parameters in mice: antidepressant versus anxiolytic-like effects. Amino Acids. 2010;39(2):427–34. doi:10.1007/s00726-009-0458-x.

15-) Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale C. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino Acids. 2012;43(1):25–37. doi:10.1007/s00726-011-1200-z.

16-) Hoffman J, Ratamess N, Kang J, Mangine G, Faigenbaum A, Stout J. Effect of creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength/power athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006;16(4):430–46.

17-) Spillane M, Schwarz N, Leddy S, Correa T, Minter M, Longoria V, et al. Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise while consuming commercially available pre- and post-workout supplements, NO-Shotgun(R) and NO-Synthesize(R) on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of protein synthesis, and clinical safety markers in bad. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2011;8:78. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-8-78.